Page tree
Skip to end of metadata
Go to start of metadata


When formulating a text, a variety of requirements must be translated into a target language. At the same time, writing down means forming an order. Thoughts and arguments are strung together like pearls on a necklace. This stringing together means choices are increasingly eliminated as the text develops.

If the text is a house, then the individual words are building blocks of the house. The more building blocks have been processed, the easier it is to recognize the house. A text house can be created in many ways: There are writers who first need a plan of what the house should look like. Then they look for the necessary building blocks and process them. Others look at what building blocks are available and how they can be put together to create a house. Lastly,  there are those who mix different processes. Knowing which type of writer you are most likely, can be helpful in identifying your individual challenges.

The formulating phase can be broken down into three broad sub-phases, each with its own challenges.

  • Beginning: start writing

  • Middle: staying in the flow

  • End: finalize and let go of one's text

Strategies for dealing with the challenges

The beginning, middle, and end in text formulation involve different challenges that must be overcome.

The beginning and procrastination

The middle: overcoming writing challenges

The end: practicing to let go


Kruse, Otto (2007): Keine Angst vor dem leeren Blatt ohne Schreibblockaden durchs Studium. Frankfurt, M; New York, NY: Campus-Verl.

> to the (German) review


Flower, Linda S./ Hayes, John R. (1980): The Dynamics of Composing. Making Plans and Juggling Constraints. In: Gregg, Lee W./ Steinberg, Erwin R. (eds.): Cognitive Processes in Writing. Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum, 31-50

Knorr, Dagmar (2016): Modell „Phasen und Handlungen akademischer Textproduktion“. Eine Visualisierung zur Beschreibung von Textproduktionsprojekten. In: Ballweg, Sandra (Hrsg.): Schreibzentrumsarbeit: Theorie, Empirie, Praxis. Frankfurt/Main u. a.: Lang [Wissen – Kompetenz – Text; 11], 251–273

(info) How to cite this page

Knorr, Dagmar (2020): Text production phase. Wiki "Schreiben im Studium | Academic Writing". Leuphana University Lüneburg, Schreibzentrum / Writing Center. <>

  • No labels